Groundwater

Allan Freeze and John Cherry (1979)

Download the entire textbook as a PDF: Groundwater (1979) (23.8 MB)

# Preface

## Chapter 1: Introduction

- 1.1 Groundwater, the Earth, and Man
- Groundwater and the Hydrologic Cycle
- Groundwater as a Resource
- Groundwater Contamination
- Groundwater as a Geotechnical Problem
- Groundwater and Geologic Processes
- 1.2 The Scientific Foundations for the Study of Groundwater
- 1.3 The Technical Foundations for the Development of Groundwater Resources
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 2: Physical Properties and Principles

- 2.1 Darcy’s Law
- 2.2 Hydraulic Head and Fluid Potential
- Hubbert’s Analysis of the Fluid Potential
- Dimensions and Units
- Piezometers and Piezometer Nests
- Coupled Flow
- 2.3 Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability
- 2.4 Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Hydraulic Conductivity
- Homogeneity and Heterogeneity
- Isotropy and Anisotropy
- Darcy’s Law in Three Dimensions
- Hydraulic Conductivity Ellipsoid
- 2.5 Porosity and Void Ratio
- 2.6 Unsaturated Flow and the Water Table
- Moisture Content
- Water Table
- Negative Pressure Heads and Tensiometers
- Characteristic Curves of the Unsaturated Hydraulic Parameters
- Saturated, Unsaturated, and Tension-Saturated Zones
- Perched and Inverted Water Tables
- Multiphase Flow
- 2.7 Aquifers and Aquitards
- Aquifers, Aquitards, and Aquicludes
- Confined and Unconfined Aquifers
- Potentiometric Surface
- 2.8 Steady-State Flow and Transient Flow
- 2.9 Compressibility and Effective Stress
- Compressibility of Water
- Effective Stress
- Compressibility of a Porous Medium
- Aquifer Compressibility
- Effective Stress in the Unsaturated Zone
- 2.10 Transmissivity and Storativity
- Specific Storage
- Transmissivity and Storativity of a Confined Aquifer
- Transmissivity and Specific Yield in Unconfined Aquifers
- Storage in the Unsaturated Zone
- 2.11 Equations of Groundwater Flow
- Steady-State Saturated Flow
- Transient Saturated Flow
- Transient Unsaturated Flow
- Boundary-Value Problems
- 2.12 Limitations of the Darcian Approach
- Darcian Continuum and Representative Elementary Volume
- Specific Discharge, Macroscopic Velocity, and Microscopic Velocity
- Upper and Lower Limits of Darcy’s Law
- Flow in Fractured Rocks
- 2.13 Hydrodynamic Dispersion

## Chapter 3: Chemical Properties and Principles

- 3.1 Groundwater and Its Chemical Constituents
- Water and Electrolytes
- Organic Constituents
- Dissolved Gases
- Concentration Units
- 3.2 Chemical Equilibrium
- The Law of Mass Action
- Activity Coefficients
- Equilibrium and Free Energy
- Dissolved Gases
- 3.3 Association and Disassociation of Dissolved Species
- The Electroneutrality Condition
- Dissociation and Activity of Water
- Polyprotic Acids
- Ion Complexes
- 3.4 Effects of Concentration Gradients
- 3.5 Mineral Dissolution and Solubility
- Solubility and the Equilibrium Constant
- Effect of Ionic Strength
- The Carbonate System
- The Common-Ion Effect
- Disequilibrium and the Saturation Index
- 3.6 Oxidation and Reduction Processes
- Oxidation States and Redox Reactions
- Consumption of Oxygen and Organic Matter
- Equilibrium Redox Conditions
- Microbiological Factors
- pE-pH Diagrams
- 3.7 Ion Exchange and Adsorption
- Mechanisms
- Cation Exchange Capacity
- Mass-Action Equations
- 3.8 Environmental Isotopes
- Carbon-14
- Tritium
- Oxygen and Deuterium
- 3.9 Field Measurements of Index Parameters
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 4: Groundwater Geology

## Chapter 5: Flow Nets

- 5.1 Flow Nets by Graphical Construction
- Homogeneous, Isotropic Systems
- Anisotropic Systems and the Transformed Section
- 5.2 Flow Nets by Analog Simulation
- Conductive-Paper Analogs
- Resistance Network Analogs
- 5.3 Flow Nets by Numerical Simulation
- 5.4 Saturated-Unsaturated Flow Nets
- 5.5 The Seepage Face and Dupuit Flow
- Seepage Face, Exit Point, and Free Surface
- Dupuit-Forchheimer Theory of Free-Surface Flow
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 6: Groundwater and the Hydrologic Cycle

- 6.1 Steady-State Regional Groundwater Flow
- Recharge Areas, Discharge Areas, and Groundwater Divides
- Effect of Topography on Regional Flow Systems
- Effect of Geology on Regional Flow Systems
- Flowing Artesian Wells
- Flow-System Mapping
- 6.2 Steady-State Hydrologic Budgets
- Quantitative Interpretation of Flow Systems
- Groundwater Recharge and Discharge as Components of a Hydrologic Budget
- 6.3 Transient Regional Groundwater Flow
- 6.4 Infiltration and Groundwater Recharge
- The Theory of Infiltration
- Measurements of Field Sites
- 6.5 Hillslope Hydrology and Streamflow Generation
- Overland Flow
- Subsurface Stormflow
- Chemical and Isotopic Indicators
- 6.6 Baseflow Recession and Bank Storage
- 6.7 Groundwater-Lake Interactions
- 6.8 Fluctuations in Groundwater Levels
- Air Entrapment During Groundwater Recharge
- Atmospheric Pressure Effects
- External Loads
- Time Lag in Piezometers
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 7: Chemical Evolution of Natural Groundwater

- 7.1 Hydrochemical Sequences and Facies
- Chemistry of Precipitation
- Carbon Dioxide in the Soil Zone
- Major-Ion Evolution Sequence
- Electrochemical Evolution Sequence
- 7.2 Graphical Methods and Hydrochemical Facies
- 7.3 Groundwater in Carbonate Terrain
- Open-System Dissolution
- Closed-System Conditions
- Incongruent Dissolution
- Other Factors
- Interpretation of Chemical Analyses
- 7.4 Groundwater in Crystalline Rocks
- Theoretical Considerations
- Laboratory Experiments
- Interpretation of Field Data
- 7.5 Groundwater in Complex Sedimentary Systems
- Order of Encounter
- Water Composition in Glacial Deposits
- Groundwater in Stratified Sedimentary Rocks
- 7.6 Geochemical Interpretation of
^{14}C Dates - 7.7 Membrane Effects in Deep Sedimentary Basins
- 7.8 Process Rates and Molecular Diffusion
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 8: Groundwater Resource Evaluation

- 8.1 Development of Groundwater Resources
- Exploration, Evaluation, and Exploitation
- Well Yield, Aquifer Yield, and Basin Yield
- 8.2 Exploration for Aquifers
- Surface Geological Methods
- Subsurface Geological Methods
- Surface Geophysical Methods
- Subsurface Geophysical Methods
- Drilling and Installation of Wells and Piezometers
- 8.3 The Response of ldeal Aquifers to Pumping
- Radial Flow to a Well
- The Theis Solution
- Leaky Aquifers
- Unconfined Aquifers
- Multiple Well Systems, Stepped Pumping Rates, Well Recovery, and Partial Penetration
- Bounded Aquifers
- The Response of Ideal Aquitards
- The Real World
- 8.4 Measurement of Parameters: Laboratory Tests
- Hydraulic Conductivity
- Porosity
- Compressibility
- Unsaturated Characteristic Curves
- 8.5 Measurement of Parameters: Piezometer Tests
- 8.6 Measurement of Parameters: Pumping Tests
- Log-Log Type-Curve Matching
- Semiology Plots
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Pumping Tests
- 8.7 Estimation of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity
- 8.8 Prediction of Aquifer Yield by Numerical Simulation
- Finite-Difference Methods
- Finite-Element-Methods
- Model Calibration and the Inverse Problem
- 8.9 Prediction of Aquifer Yield by Analog Simulation
- Analogy Between Electrical Flow and Groundwater Flow
- Resistance-Capacitance Network
- Comparison of Analog and Digital Simulation
- 8.10 Basin Yield
- Safe Yield and Optimal Yield of a Groundwater Basin
- Transient Hydrologic Budgets and Basin Yield
- 8.11 Artificial Recharge and Induced Infiltration
- 8.12 Land Subsidence
- Mechanism of Land Subsidence
- Field Measurement of Land Subsidence
- 8.13 Seawater Intrusion
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 9: Groundwater Contamination

- 9.1 Water Quality Standards
- 9.2 Transport Processes
- Nonreactive Constituents in Homogeneous Media
- Nonreactive Constituents in Heterogeneous Media
- Transport of Reactive Constituents
- Transport in Fractured Media
- 9.3 Hydrochemical Behavior of Contaminants
- Nitrogen
- Trace Metals
- Trace Nonmetals
- Organic Substances
- 9.4 Measurement of Parameters
- Velocity Determination
- Dispersivity
- Chemical Partitioning
- 9.5 Sources of Contamination
- Land Disposal of Solid Wastes
- Sewage Disposal on Land
- Agricultural Activities
- Petroleum Leakage and Spills
- Disposal of Radioactive Waste
- Deep-Well Disposal of Liquid Wastes
- Other Sources
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 10: Groundwater and Geotechnical Problems

- 10.1 Pore Pressures, Landslides and Slope Stability
- Mohr-Coulomb Failure Theory
- Limit Equilibrium Methods of Slope Stability Analysis
- Effect of Groundwater Conditions on Slope Stability in Soils
- Effect of Groundwater Conditions on Slope Stability in Rock
- 10.2 Groundwater and Dams
- Types of Dams and Dam Failures
- Seepage Under Concrete Dams
- Grouting and Drainage of Dam Foundations
- Steady-State Seepage Through Earth Dams
- Transient Seepage Through Earth Dams
- Hydrogeologic Impact of Reservoirs
- 10.3 Groundwater Inflows Into Tunnels
- A Tunnel as a Steady-State or Transient Drain
- Hydrogeologic Hazards of Tunneling
- Predictive Analysis of Groundwater Inflows Into Tunnels
- 10.4 Groundwater Inflows Into Excavations
- Drainage and Dewatering of Excavations
- Predictive Analysis of Groundwater Inflows Into Excavations
- Suggested Readings

## Chapter 11: Groundwater and Geologic Processes

- 11.1 Groundwater and Structural Geology
- Hubbert-Rubey Theory of Overthrust Faulting
- Earthquake Prediction and Control
- 11.2 Groundwater and Petroleum
- Migration and Accumulation of Petroleum
- Hydrodynamic Entrapment of Petroleum
- Regional Flow Systems and Petroleum Accumulations
- Implications for Petroleum Exploration
- 11.3 Groundwater and Thermal Processes
- Thermal Regimes in Natural Groundwater Flow Systems
- Geothermal-Systems
- Pluton Emplacement
- 11.4 Groundwater and Geomorphology
- Karst and Caves
- Natural Slope Development
- Fluvial-Processes
- Glacial-Processes
- 11.5 Groundwater and Economic Mineralization
- Genesis of Economic Mineral Deposits
- Implications for Geochemical Exploration
- Suggested Readings

## Appendices

- Appendix I: Elements of Fluid Mechanics
- Appendix II: Equation of Flow for Transient Flow Through Deforming Saturated Media
- Appendix III: Example of an Analytical Solution to a Boundary-Value Problem
- Appendix IV: Debye-Hückel Equation and Kielland Table For Ion-Activity Coefficients
- Appendix V: Complementary Error Function (erfc)
- Appendix VI: Development of Finite-Difference Equation for Steady-State Flow in a Homogeneous, Isotropic Medium
- Appendix VII: Tóth’s Analytical Solution for Regional Groundwater Flow
- Appendix VIII: Numerical Solution of the Boundary-Value Problem Representing One-Dimensional Infiltration Above a Recharging Groundwater Flow System
- Appendix IX: Development of Finite-Difference Equation for Transient Flow in a Heterogeneous, Anisotropic, Horizontal, Confined Aquifer
- Appendix X: Derivation of the Advection-Dispersion Equation for Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media